Scholarship Reconsidered: A Synopsis

Scholarship is defined to include four types of intellectual activity. These four types of scholarship are to be equally recognized, accepted, and respected, and the overall performance of each faculty member is to be carefully accessed and held to a high standard of excellence.

Scholarship of Teaching

The scholarship of teaching can be the most rigorous scholarship of all. It starts with what the teacher knows--teachers must be widely read and intellectually engaged in their fields; but teaching becomes consequential only when knowledge can be conveyed and is understood by others. The scholarship of teaching has to do with understanding how students learn in different fields. To be a good teacher means not merely just knowing the field, but also understanding and using the most effective teaching methodologies available. This includes the development of new teaching materials, development and evaluation of new methods of instruction, and the development of techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Each of these activities must be documented and assessed. Documentation could include publications dealing with pedagogy and/or teaching techniques, participation in workshops and seminars devoted to improving teaching skills, written evaluations of teaching materials, and the development of outcomes assessment tools.

Scholarship of Discovery

The scholarship of discovery is the closest to what is meant by the term "basic research. " Freedom of inquiry and freedom of scholarly investigation is an essential part of higher education. Each and every faculty member should establish credentials as a researcher. The capacity to carry out the scientific method and to conduct meaningful research is an important aspect of learning. In institutions whose primary mission is undergraduate teaching, the dissertation or other comparable piece of creative work could suffice for this; however, institutions having research missions and graduate programs would be expected to have on-going research activities.

Scholarship of Integration

The scholarship of integration seeks to interpret, to draw together, and to bring new insights to bear on original research. The scholarship of integration means fitting one's work into larger intellectual patterns. The scholarship of integration is necessary in dealing with the boundaries of the human problems of today which do not always neatly fall within defined disciplines. It is essential to integrate ideas and then apply them to the world in which we live. Comprehensive articles and monographs, participating in curricular innovation, conducting interdisciplinary seminars and textbook writing are examples of the scholarship of integration.

Scholarship of Application

The scholarship of application moves toward the active engagement of the scholar. It focuses on the responsible application of knowledge to consequential problems. In the past, this type of activity has been called applied research and/or development Note that this is not to be a catch- all category .The scholarship of application does not include regular service activities or routine consulting. The scholarship of application must be tied directly to one's field of know ledge and relate to and flow directly out of creative professional activity. The engagement in applied research and/or development may take the form of contract research, consultation, technical assistance, policy analysis, or program evaluation--provided that these are really meaningful intellectual activities. This kind of scholarship requires creativity, and critical thought in analyzing real problems. These activities must be documented and should include an evaluation from those receiving these services.

This description of scholarship was drawn from Scholarship Reconsidered:  Priorities of the Professoriate, a special report from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.